Katherine Perfilio

Helium Balloons

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The purpose of the research paper was to find out what makes helium balloons float. It is found that helium balloons are able to float because of the Archimedes Principle. The Archimedes Principle states that if an object is immersed in a fluid heavier than the fluid it displaces, it will sink, and if the object is lighter than the fluid, it will rise. The fact that air is denser than helium makes the balloon rise. In conclusion, the balloons will rise because helium is simply lighter than air.

Michael Brennan

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You may have been asked if you would like your car tires filled with Nitrogen. This is the newest craze for eco-friendly motorist. Having your tires filled with 99% pure nitrogen will eliminate the constant need to inflate your tires with conventional air. This is due to air constantly expanding and contracting because of the surrounding temperatures. Nitrogen does not expand or contract in the similar manor as air. And with air being 80% nitrogen it only makes sense to chose this widely abundant element. After research, you can save money by choosing to go nitro; it will actually save you mpg and make your tires last longer. But the cost to have your tires filled is still pretty high, although it is expected to come down as this process becomes more popular.

Assunta DeSanto
The Chemical Effects of Chemotherapy on the Human
Chemotherapy kills the cancer cells in the human body. Chemotherapy can be received once a month through once a day, and can be received through a needle, with a pill, or as a shot. The term chemotherapy is comprised of 285 different chemicals that affect different parts of the human systems. These chemicals are broken into groups based on their chemical properties. The chemicals, aside from removing the tumor, also kill hair cells, and change cells in the mouth, skin, bone marrow, reproductive system, and other internal organs. Some things that help reduce the problems with Chemotherapy are different medicines, growth factors and social connections. Patients that undergo chemotherapy and surgery have a 97% chance of living.

Austin Burkey, Ethan Jones

The Chemical Effects of Psychedelic Drugs on the Body

----Our paper invloved the researching of the chemical effects and reactants of psychedelic drugs on the human body. We researched three drugs which included LSD, Psilocybin mushrooms, and Marijuana. We concluded that each of these drugs can have numerous chemical effects all depending on the person, how much of the drug is actually consumed, how the drug is consumed, if it is mixed with any other type of drug, etc. Each of these drugs have numerous chemicals and more information about each is constantly being discovered.


Laraine Birks

Global Warming

Global Warming is the gradual increase in the earth's temperature. The increase of earth's temperature is caused by an overabundance of specific gases such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and can be explained by the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon that is responsible for trapping heat near the earth's surface to keep the planet warm. In simple terms, these gases released by the combustion of fossil fuels form a covering similar to the glass in a greenhouse. This "glass covering" lets heat from the sun into the atmosphere but traps the sun's heat along with the earth's natural radiative heat without allowing it to radiate back into space. As a result, this inability to release heat from the earth's environment and back into space causes an increase in the average temperature of the planet.

Tiffany, Danny and Tina
When someone places a mentos inside a diet coke bottle a chemical reaction occurs, in which the soda erupts.There are certain things inside the soda which cause the eruption. First of all, carbon dioxide is put in the bottles as they are being manufactured. When something is placed inside a bottle of soda, fizzing occurs. When a mentos is added an explosion occurs. What is in the mentos that makes the soda erupt? The reason that the mint mentos only work is because of the outer shell. The outer shell of the mint mentos lets the bubbles form the carbon dioxide. Also the outer shell of the Mentos candy has tiny pits called nucleation sites, where carbon dioxide could form. Also when a mentos is dropped in the bottle it breaks surface tension.Water molecules surround the bubbles caused by carbon dioxide. They keep the bubbles in check. The breaking of surface tension causes the bubbles to form. Anything dropped inside soda sinks to the bottom and creates bubbles. Because mentos sink to the bottom, break surface tension, and bubbles form on the mentos, all the gases that are released cause even the liquid to shoot out of the bottle. external image 400px-diet_coke_mentos.jpg

Arjun Dalsania and Tyler Cuneo
The topic of the research was how plasma televisions are able to show the display they show. The purpose was to figure out how the new plasma screen televisions work in comparison to the older Cathode Ray Tube televisions. After conducting the research, it was discovered that the plasma screen display is able to create such a clear and vibrant picture by lighting up one of three colored fluorescents lights inside pixels. Either green, blue, or red fluorescent lights illuminated at different proportions inside of the pixel is what gives us such good picture quality. The older CRT televisions created their picture by a beam of electrons that is fired inside a large glass tube. In conclusion, it was acknowledged how the plasma screen televiosions work and how they are better than the CRT televsions.
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Sarah and John


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Saponification is the study of how soaps and dish washing detergents clean.
There are two main kinds of surfactants used in laundry detergent. There are anionic surfactants, and the more commonly used non-ionic surfactants. Concerning the name, a surfactant which dissociates in water and releases cation and anion (or zwitterions) is termed ionic (cationic, anionic, zwitterionic) surfactant. On the other hand, a surfactant which does not dissociate is called a nonionic surfactant. Both of these surfactant are used in cleaning products, but in an indivual product there is one kind of surfactant. In soaps
the fats are hydrolyzed by the base, yielding alkali salts of fatty acids (crude soap) and glycerol. Soap is made from either vegetable or animal fats. Sodium tallowate, a common ingredient in many soaps, is derived from rendered beef fat. Soap can also be made of vegetable oils, such as palm oil, and the product is typically softer. If soap is made from pure olive oil it may be called Castile soap or Marseille soap.

Megan and Marco

Why Popcorn Pops

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The purpose of our research was to figure out why a tiny kernal of corn pops into a tiny snack. After researching our topic we found out that when a kernal receahes a temperature of a little higher than 350 degrees Fahrenheit, pressure begins to be forced onto the outside of the kernel. When the oil and water inside the kernel reach a temperature above the boiling point, they turn the moisture inside the kernel into a superheated pressurized steam. This steam is contained inside of the moisture-proofed popcorn hull. The pressure, in the kernel, will continue to increase until the hull can no longer withstand the force and then pops. As the hull bursts, a sudden drop of pressure inside the kernel will cause a sudden expansion of steam from within. This steam will, in turn, expand starches and proteins into a very light foamy substance. Immediately after the kernel ruptures, the newly born foam is quite moist, but will later turn into a more crunchy, hardened puff of popcorn as the starches and protein polymers form it.

Why is the Sky Blue?
Amanda & Liz

Throughout the years the question of why the sky is blue has been common amoung many people. Chemistry can provide the answer the this quesiton.The bright blue color that we see when we look up at the sky is due to the Raleigh Scattering effect. This
causes light to scatter when it pĀ­asses through particles, this scattering is more effective at short wavelengths, which would be the blue end of the visible spectrum. That is why looking at the sky blue is seen and not any other color on the visible spectrum. Another phenomenon related to this is Aurora Borealis, which is the scientific name for "The Northern Lights." This is the collison of charged particles in the Earth's upper atmosphere. These collisons cause energy and that energy emits light, forming colors that are
known as Aurora Borealis.

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Sky paler at horizon
Sky paler at horizon

Hand Warmers

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Many individuals use hand warmers, but very few realize that the heat generated by these packets is the direct result of a chemical reaction. There are two main types of hand warmer: those that are activated by shaking, and those that react with oxygen. The hand warmers one shakes contain a roughened steel strip inside a supersaturated solution of sodium acetate. When shaken, a small piece of steel breaks off and reacts with the solution (which crystallizes), and heat is generated. The second type of hand warmer contains iron, a salt solution that acts as a catalyst, and some other insulating materials like carbon. This kind of hand warmer is wrapped, usually in plastic, to isolate the contents from oxygen. When unwrapped and exposed to oxygen, the iron rusts in a process called oxidation. With the salt speeding this oxidation process, heat is quickly produced. Through these relatively simple chemical reactions, many hands are warmed every day. Even small scientific contributions like hand warmers have a large impact on the comfort of daily life.

How do the Chemicals In Cigarettes Effect the Human Body?

Elena de Soto

The purpose of this research was to study the effects of smoking cigarettes on the human body. Cigarettes are filled with harmful chemicals that hurt the human body when inhaled. With over 200 poisonous gasses found in a single cigarette, it's impossible for cigarettes to do your body any good. Chemicals such as Benzene, Formaldehyde, Arsenic, and Cadmium are found in pesticides, gasoline, rat poison, and even used to preserve dead bodies. Those chemicals and so many more are also all found in a cigarette.
Starting from the first second smoke is inhaled; cells located in airways bind and block major organs. Genes are altered by carcinogens, and speed and growth of cell reproduction becomes abnormal. Smoking also weakens the immune system, leaving someone more vulnerable to respiratory infections and other disease. The biggest and most lethal effect of smoking cigarettes is cancer. Mouth, throat, and lung cancer are extremely popular from smoking.
Cigarettes are filled with chemicals. Each one of those chemicals affects the body in one way or another. From causing temporary infections to lethal diseases, the chemicals in a cigarette are destructive.
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Brian Errigo and Tom Deverueax

Gunpowder, Thermite, and You!

Gunpowder is the combustible material used to propel the bullets in firearms, and Thermite is a material that becomes very hot and is used to weld together very tough metals. The follow research was conducted to figure out how the following materials behaved the way they did. Both act in the same way, where the breaking on chemical bonds releases large quantities of enegry as light and heat. Thermite releases so much heat it can reach temperatures of more than 5000F. When enough heat is applied to either substance, they begin a self sufficent exothermic reaction, resulting in all kinds of chaotic enegry. However, the byproducts are very diffrent, gunpowder leaves behind carbon and water vapor, whereas Thermite leaves behind molten iron.

Thermite goes KABOOM!